عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The location of settlements and other facilities created by man is fully influenced by natural factors, in particular geomorphology and geology. The location and orientation of unevenness in issues such as urban construction or in the relocation of urban population, etc., has an undeniable role. Form-process relationships are among the most fundamental issues in geomorphology. The science of geomorphology has been able to analyze the existing relationships between the forms of vision and the active processes and identifies the processes that affect these forms in different periods of time. Today, the functional role of geomorphology in civil projects, national and regional programing such as planning for road safety, natural hazards, location of settlements has become more prominent and are clear for all local and regional planners and policymakers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of form and geomorphologic factors of the northern slopes of Karkas heights on human settlements and their effect on the distribution and distribution of life centers in the studied area.
Materials and Methods
The northern slopes of Karkas heights with an area of 4739 km2 are located in the northwestern part of Isfahan province. The study area is located in five cities of Natanz, Shahinshahr and Meimeh, Kashan, Aran and Bidgol in Isfahan province and Delijan city in the central province. This research has generally been conducted analytically and based on field studies and library resources in the field of geomorphology. After providing the map with morphological characteristics by subject, it was done through field observations to map it with reality. Then, the northern slopes of Karkas heights in the studied area were divided into three land unit: convex (mountain), concave (Dasht Sara) and retro (Playa). Considering the large extent of the area and the considerable number of settlements in the studied area, villages with a population of more than 100 people based on the census data of population and housing in 2011 were surveyed. Finally, how to distribute each settlement point in these units, the role of the levels, processes and geomorphologic landforms of the studied area in the distribution of life spots in the northern slopes of Karkas heights were analyzed.
Discussion and Results
In order to evaluate the role of geomorphologic factors in the distribution of settlements in the studied area, the territorial units of the studied area were first studied and then the ruling processes and the resulting forms were identified. Finally, the role of each factor in the formation of life centers in the studied area was investigated. In mountainous region, in addition to the water process, the refrigerated process also acts and forms glacier circus and U-shaped valleys. Although the highest number of settlements has formed in the mountainous area, the percentage of inhabitants in that area is much less than in other units. Dasht Sar unit comprises 69.34% of the population of the studied area. All parts of the settlement are located below the conifers and only one part of the city of Kashan, along with the two villages of Khazag and Taher Abad, have been expanded on the coniferous. The most important advantage of using conifers in the studied area is the use of aquifers in these lands that have been exploited as aqueducts. The presence of incompatible climatic conditions and cold climate have caused the primary centers of life in the studied area to be formed at a large distance from the mountain unit and at the end points of the cones. The Playa unit has the least area among the land units. Agricultural activities in this unit are limited. Wind erosion first removes loose soil without vegetation and causes soil erosion. During the course of transportation of fine-grained materials and gravel, the collision of these particles with human and biological resources, including facilities, roads, agricultural lands and residential areas, has erosion and damages. On the other hand, the placement of materials carried in the form of sandy hills and shrubs is also an obstacle to the growth and development of desert areas for human habitats.
The results of this study showed that the most important process in the spatial distribution of settlements is the glacial process. All settlements in the studied area are located at a height lower than the permanent snow line (2500 meters). The main centers of the formation of civilization in the region, namely, the city of Kashan and the city of Badrud, dating back to the age of several thousand years ago, have been located in Dasht Sara and Playa units, far from the mountains, and due to the climatic conditions in the past. There are located 45 settlements in the mountain unit. Therefore, the most important unit is the mountain, which is considered as a convex surface.