سنجش شاخص‌های کیفیت محیط شهری (مطالعه‌ی موردی: مسکن مهر شهر سبزوار)

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

کیفیت محیط شهری به‌عنوان بخشی از کیفیت زندگی، از مباحث کلیدی در حوزه‌ی مطالعات شهری است که با رشد سریع شهرها و تمرکز جمعیت و فعالیت دست­خوش تغییر قرارگرفته است. به دلیل این­که کیفیت محیط شهری دارای دو بعد عینی و ذهنی است، سنجش آن نیز به دو صورت محیط عینی و بر اساس ادراک افراد از محیط شهری انجام می‌پذیرد. در همین زمینه، مقاله­ی حاضر باهدف سنجش کیفیت محیط شهری مسکن مهر شهر سبزوار اقدام به شناخت و ارزیابی شاخص‌های مؤثر بر کیفیت محیط شهری نموده است. این پژوهش، ازنظر هدف دارای رویکردی کاربردی- توسعه‌ای و ازنظر روش، توصیفی ـ تحلیلی است. روش گردآوری داده‌ها ابتدا به‌صورت کتابخانه‌ای و اسنادی بوده و سپس بعد از طراحی پرسش‌نامه و محاسبه­ی جامعه­ی آماری که ساکنین مسکن مهر شهر سبزوار هستند، از طریق فرمول کوکران تعداد 340 پرسش‌نامه پیش‌بینی ‌شده و از طریق پیمایش میدانی به‌صورت تصادفی تکمیل گردیدند. شیوه­ی تحلیل این تحقیق، آزمون T تک نمونه و رگرسیون چندمتغیره است که به‌صورت سلسله مراتبی مورد تحلیل قرارگرفته است. نتایج مطالعه، نشان‌دهنده­ی رضایت ساکنین ویژگی‌های سکونتی و عدم رضایت از ویژگی‌های محیط شهری است. کیفیت محیط شهری برآیند ویژگی‌های محیط سکونتی و ویژگی‌های محیط شهری است که با میانگین 2.62 کم‌تر از میانگین نظری (3) است که نشان سطح پایین کیفیت محیط شهری و عدم رضایت شهروندان است. هم‌چنین در بین شاخص‌های سه‌گانه‌ی محیط شهری، ویژگی‌های کالبدی- فضایی با ضریب بتای 735/0 اهمیت بیش‌تری از ویژگی‌های اجتماعی با ضریب بتای 732/0 و ویژگی‌های محتوایی با ضریب بتای 603/0 دارد. در تحلیل سطح نهایی مدل نیز محیط شهری با ضریب بتای 014/1 اهمیت بیش‌تری نسبت به محیط مسکونی با ضریب بتای 513/0 در سنجش کیفیت محیط شهری محدوده‌ی موردمطالعه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the quality of urban environmental Factors, Case study: housing Mehr, Sabzevar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aref Shahi Aqbelaghi 1
  • Yaghob Zanganeh 2
  • Hasan Khodabandehlo 2
1
2
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Housing is one of the most essential needs for human have different issues. The issues in developing countries are of a limited nature due to existing housing shortages, population growth, immigration and economic constraints and mainly include developing countries.On the other hand, housing issues in developed countries are more of a qualitative and demographic and social structure.Considering the importance of providing appropriate housing especially for low income groups, various policies has been designed and implemented to solve these kinds of issues. In order to solve the problem of housing, especially for low income group in Iran, the policy of Mehr accommodation has been implemented. One of the main dimensions of this project is the level of residents' satisfaction. The present research question is whether residents are satisfied with the characteristics of the urban environment? Which indicators are more important in the quality of urban environment?
Materials and Methods
The present article is descriptive-analytical and data collection based on documentary and survey method and its results are practical and developmental. The nature of the research data is of a qualitative nature. By reviewing the literature, the indicators were compiled in four levels and were collected through a questionnaire. Statistical society was all households living in Mehr housing of Sabzevar. Due to the large volume of statistical population, Sampling was done and 340 families were estimated using Cochran method. Sample members also were selected by simple random sampling method, and finally the extracted data from the questionnaires analyzed with a single sample T-test and analysis of multiple regression and SPSS software.
Discussion and Results
The results of single sample T test for urban environment index equal to 2.7, which indicates satisfaction less than optimal (theoretical average 3) and for the indicator of the quality of the residential environment is 3.11, which indicates the relative satisfaction of inhabitants from the residential environment index. The average overall quality of the urban environment is equal to 2.62 and indicates the residents' dissatisfaction with the quality of the urban environment. Based on the results of multiple regressions in the skeleton and spatial variables, R2 for space and buildings sub-index is 0.94 and the quality of access to streets, public and green spaces is 89.0 and 91.0, respectively. On the variables of functional and structural criterion, quality of recreational services, social welfare services, business services and transportation services are 0.93, 0.93, 0.88 and 0.51, respectively.  Among the indicators below, the criterion of content properties also highlights the quality of people and social relationships with a value of 0.61 more variance. Skeleton-spatial and performance-structural characteristics describe quality of urban environment through values more than variance. Beta coefficient for performance-skeleton property is 0.735, therefore this property is more important than other sub-indices. Among sub-indices of residential environment, the size quality and of the building facilities index is 0.90 and this value is more than variance. Among sub-indices of residential environment, the cost quality of residential units is 0.834 and this is more important than other sub-indices. The results of the final analysis of multiple regression (the quality of the urban environment) which consists of the urban environment and residential area sub-indices shows that the urban environment sub-index represents more value in the quality variance of urban environment.  Also, urban environment with a beta coefficient of 1/140 is more important than the residential environment with a beta coefficient of 51.03.
Conclusions
According to the inhabitants' opinion, the satisfaction of the quality of the housing environment of Mehr housing city of Sabzevar, especially in structural-functional characteristics, is below the desirable level, which indicates its low quality; while the index of the quality of the environment shows a good level of living, but Inconsistency with the quality of the urban environment and the external environment of housing has led to a duality; therefore, more efforts are needed to improve the urban environment in order to improve the level of satisfaction of citizens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sabzevar
  • Quality of urban environment
  • Quality of residential area
  • Mehr housing
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