مسأله حضور در فضا: آگاهی و عاملیت فضایی با تاکید بر فضای عمومی شهری

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

چکیده

مفهوم فضا به‌واسطه‌ی حضور افراد و از خلال روابط اجتماعی آن‌ها شکل می‌گیرد. حضور افراد در فضا می‌تواند  باعث به جریان افتادن حیات شهری گردد. در نوشتارِ حاضر با در نظر گرفتنِ فضا به‌عنوان یک مسئله، تلاش شده مفاهیمی چون آگاهی، طرد و شمول، مقاومت و قدرت که به دنبالِ حضور افراد در فضا و به‌واسطه‌ی فضا شکل می‌گیرند، مورد تحلیل قرارگرفته و درنهایت هر کدام در نسبتِ با فضا صورت‌بندی گردند. وجه اشتراکِ مفاهیمِ مذکور، مفهومِ فضا بوده و هر کدام در رابطه با مفهومِ فضاست که فهمیده می‌شوند. به بیانی دیگر نوشتارِ پیش رو، به دنبال این است نشان دهد چگونه فضا می‌تواند باعثِ تحققِ بالقوگی‌های فردی و عینیتِ یافتنِ هریک از مفاهیمِ مذکور گردد؟ فضا به چه شیوه‌هایی می‌تواند زمینه‌ی کنشگری و عاملیت فردی و گروهی، مقاومت و شکل‌گیری قدرت، طرد و شمول و شکل‌گیری آگاهی فضایی را فراهم آورد یا متقابلاً محدود کند؟ در راستای پاسخ به سؤالات مطرح‌شده، نوشتار حاضر در قسمت روش‌شناسی با تأکید بر این‌که روش، نظریه و واقعیتِ فضایی درهم‌تنیده‌اند، ابتدا در مقامِ مقدمه و طرح مسئله در مورد فضای عمومی و فضا بحث می‌کند و پرسشِ ذهنی و دغدغه­ی نوشتار را مطرح می‌کند. سپس در ادامه، زیرِ عنوانِ نگاهِ نظری به مسئله‌ی حضور افراد در فضا، مقوله‌های تولید و بازتولید فضای شهری و چگونگی ارتباط متقابل آن با مناسبات قدرت در فضای شهری؛ زمان، تجربه، خودآگاهی فضایی و حضور و مقاومتِ سوژه در فضا به تفصیل بیان و بحث می‌شوند. در همین راستا و متناسب با نگاهِ نظریِ متن، در ادامه‌ی نوشتارِ پیش رو سعی دارد با حفظِ استقلالِ فکری و اتکا به منطقِ حضوریِ گروه‌های مختلف، مفهومِ عاملیت را در چارچوبِ فکریِ نام‌برده صورت‌بندی کند و در این دستگاهِ نظری به فضا بنگرد و مفهومِ حضور را مورد تحلیل قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Problem of Presence in the Space: Spatial Consciousness and Agency, with Emphasis on Urban Public Space

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Yazdanian
  • Hashem Dadashpoor
چکیده [English]

Introduction
How can public urban space be able to thoroughly explore the potentialities of individuals and objectivity of each of these concepts? Space in the first expression means the concept of conscious perception of the environment and then the conscious or unknowing formation of it by man. Human activity removes the public space from the pre-existing and extraterrestrial status and, in turn, transforms individuals into contact with the communication contexts of functional passivity and to the spatial agent. The attachment of people to space and its presence in different periods has deep and different roots. In spatial analysis, we must pay attention to the presence or absence of a person in space, social relations and attitudes, which in different ways provide the ground for the transformation of individuals into objects and spatial agents.
Materials and Methods
In this paper, by relying on the interconnectedness of method, theory and reality, the analysis of the space problem and how to provide the spatial context of agency, action, the possibility and potential of space and the achievement of each in the process of production and reproduction of space in the city has been paid.
Discussion and Results
In this section, the following are discussed:
- Production and reproduction of space: from social view space is a dual nature, and in each society there is a dual existence. People create space as social entities, life, self-awareness and the world. Space transformed into a living experience by the presence of a social subject. Social space is social product. Space is result of economic, social and cultural, political and historical relations.
- Spatial Dialectic; the structure and socio-spatial agents: The social space is as the realm of the presence of individuals; this means that space cannot itself exist. Space represents the order of time and in the history of social reality. Historical concepts of space are analyzed on the basis of three axes, which are, in a simpler form, spatial practice, representations of space and representational space. The level of agency and activity of individuals and the possibility of being present in each of the three spaces vary depending on the areas in which these spaces are provided.
- Disciplinary discourse and the normalization of space: Different qualities of space influence on the way and manner of action and agency of people in space. The space mechanism sometimes limits the presence of individuals through pre-formation. Limiting the presence of people in space in the long run, will cause spatial separation and deprivation.
- Spatial tactics, resistance and presence as a negation of spatial subordination: space is a practical place. Resistance may be in any kind of power in space. The meaning of space is determined by an action, and small changes occurring in the space flow can be interpreted as new interpretations of spatial designs.
- Spatial awareness and its manifestation (presence): Urban spaces provide important areas for challenging unequal social, gender and ethnic constructs. A person learns to be in space to enter into conversation through an agreement on life.
- Geography of space and social activities: The size and density of the population leads to the presence of different people with different values and attitudes in common spaces. In the relationship between space and behavior, four theoretical positions can be different: Optional approach, Positive approach, probabilistic approach, Algebraic approach.
Conclusions
Space cannot be outside of existing social relationships. According to the new discourse, there is no space without communication and without human relationships. In a new paradigmatic turn, one can speak of the concept of presence, followed by individual and group autonomy in space and concepts such as resistance, consciousness, tactics, and spatial and experimental strategies. In each society, different groups can create and reproduce their own space through various ways of presenting themselves in the public space of the city. Urban public space is, in fact, the field of activity of individuals and groups that create spatial experience in the pursuit of gradual formation of their internal and spatial relationships.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Production of space
  • Spatial Consciousness
  • Reproduction of Power
  • possibility
  • Agency
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