عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
It is impossible to know about development challenges of rural areas without studying forming forces of rural spaces, and complicated factors which made village structures. Representing the nature of Iran rural areas in conceptual form of “making space” will consist of a combination of materialistic spatial actions with formal representation of space and living space of daily life. Undoubtedly, formal and issued processes related to intellectual space will cause tensions between urban and rural areas which make benefits to urban areas and affect the future of rural daily life. Apart from problem-oriented trends towards rural development challenges, it can be said that rural areas have experienced social and physical-spatial changes by profound and extensive changes to Iran region over time. Without a doubt, the domain and range of these changes are subjected to future. A future which is increasingly untrustworthy, obscure, and resistant seemed to be discovered. Therefore, future study method will search the possible future among probable futures to prepare condition for its best favor. However, different methods could be used in future study approach, but scenario method is used in this survey, and rural development realistic and probable scenarios could be prepared
Materials and Methods
In this survey, scenario method is used to analyze development of future challenges of Iran rural areas. In this method, choosing main questions cause searches about analyzing rural area challenges and its future changes. Therefore, important factors, effective factors and propellant with high uncertainty would be identified. It is necessary to specify important factors to answer the considered question based on scenario method. Dialectic relationship in any spatial component of Lefebvre triple space are as important factors, and known as most effective factors on Iran space, and their uncertainty would recognized by Delphi mini-panel . Moreover, effectiveness and influences of each propellant at each category and its connection to other categories have been written after specifying propellants in important component and their effects on each other. Accordingly, the way of combination of identified factors and uncertainties make a special scenario. In fact, by choosing two categories –which will be referred in the following text-, main scenarios will be formed, which can make four different and logical scenario space, and story of each scenario can be written in this space.
Discussion and Results
Analyzing the effectiveness of national spaces in Tryalictic Lefebvre logic has lots of complexities. Making space, possession, dominance and accessibility at material spatial actions with its mixed component, cause city structure of human environment transform to special spatial forms which connect production space to consumption and management space. Land market and its usages, ownership different relationship (different kinds of denotations, Khalese and Tiyol, lordship and royal possessions), and tenement market can be a place to dominate the power in order to confirm the possession on space. Moreover, specifying the dominance of money and instrument cause the availability to financial spaces is in monopoly layers and profitable and commercial activities. The direction of forces which generate material- spatial activities, show their dominance on urban areas; though increasing dependence of financial flows to informatics and communicational technologies, bring serious challenges to development foundation towards weakness of these infrastructures in local societies. “Space representation” is result of these forces which make an intellectual and conceptual space. Rationality and abstraction of space representation make dominate discussions about each historical period; at last, making space is product of power, knowledge and ideology forces. In other words, daily life activities of Iranian people is not only dominated, controlled and supervised by planners, government officials, technical elite, etc; but also imposed by meanings, values and their perception of space towards daily life.
Different aspects of formation of Lefebvre “making space” theory, show space as a development procedure, and development of urban areas represent such instrument to survival of capitalism as a place of productivity, consuming and circulation of investment and making workforce; therefore demands of capital accumulation of rural areas will give up which explained the forgetfulness of rural areas.
Prior and predominate cities are considered as a place to represent and generating phenomenon related to globalization, and they have more consideration and use more facilities than other rural living areas in an unfair development procedure, moreover urban modernization plans have paid more attention to them. Therefore, rural areas will remain separate, incomplete and weak daily experiences of investment. The basic question is the future of Iran rural changes will lead where? To answer this question need future study application method (with scenario approach). Answering to this question is by specifying main and effective factors and recognizing and analyzing propellants and their relations towards “modernization influence” and “knowledge and power systems”, which form scenarios, predict the future of Iran rural spatial changes. Titles were chosen for these scenarios are “a thousand of shinning sun”, “Goethe’s Faust” and “Fakhte Khayyam”, which predict future of rural areas in a spectrum of golden future to dark and catastrophic future. According to expert’s opinions, the “Goethe’s Faust” scenario has more validity and is more probable to be occurred.
Application of conceptual formation of Tryalictic Laufer which reflects local forms, external flows, intellectual actions (power, knowledge), and living experiences is a base for analyzing criticism of space.
According to this analysis and using future study method probable scenarios for rural future changes have drawn. The forgotten space in Iran have been produced and affected by sensible space of geographical forms, intellectual space of ideological and political structure, and social usage of living space with dialectic scanning during the time. This is not a sheer reproduction, but is effective at its conflict reproduction.
The lack of balance in sensible space could be analyzed in form of man-made environment, space possession, land market, and money and investment dominance. In intellectual space as production form of Iran investment space, the government dominance on Iran space and construction plans are discussed as the predominate issue on space. Living space considered in forms of Iranian daily life changes, leisure time in daily life, and way of living. Formed propellants based on high uncertainty in this conceptual formation have considered towards power and knowledge systems and modernization influence which cause these scenarios study the validity of these scenarios know that scenario with more certain high which imagine generating space in future full of contrast, conflicts, and dichotomies, and that is Faust scenario or semi-Faust pattern in contemporary Iran which have been increased during time.