تحلیل مطلوبیت مسکن از دیدگاه ساکنان (مطالعه موردی: شهرک اندیشه،شهر سبزوار)

نویسندگان

دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

امروزه مسکن به‌عنوان یکی از بخش‌های مهم اقتصادی و اجتماعی در برنامه‌ریزی‌های کلان کشور موردتوجه واقع شده است. ازآنجایی‌که مسکن یکی از نیازهای اساسی انسان و ازجمله مهم‌ترین کاربری‌های شهری به شمار می‌آید، شکل مناسب و مطلوب مسکن به‌نوبه‌ی خود نقشی تعیین‌کننده در تأمین این نیازها بر عهده دارد و از طرفی مهم‌ترین عامل تأثیرگذار در میزان رضایت‌مندی فرد از سکونت در یک محله و نوع زندگی خویش، مسکن و شرایط محیطی آن محله است و زندگی در شرایط مسکونی نابهنجار(چه به لحاظ کیفیت و چه به لحاظ کمیت مسکن) سلامت جسمی و روانی ساکنین را بسیار متزلزل و نابسامان می‌سازد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی مطلوبیت مسکن از دیدگاه ساکنان شهرک اندیشه‌ی شهر سبزوار انجام گرفته است. روش تحقیق از نظر ماهیت، توصیفی- تحلیلی و از حیث هدف، کاربردی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات نیز به‌صورت اسنادی و میدانی و بعد از طراحی پرسش‌نامه و محاسبه‌ی جامعه‌ی آماری که ساکنین شهرک اندیشه‌ی شهر سبزوار هستند، از طریق فرمول کوکران تعداد 400 پرسش‌نامه پیش‌بینی ‌شده و از طریق پیمایش میدانی به‌صورت تصادفی تکمیل گردیدند. در این تحقیق، تعداد 36 گویه در قالب 5 شاخص اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست‌محیطی، کالبدی، کیفیت مسکن، جهت بررسی دیدگاه ساکنان در رابطه با مطلوبیت مساکن به کار گرفته‌ شده است. روایی پرسش‌نامه‌ی مورداستفاده با آزمون آلفای کرونباخ، 723/0 مورد تأیید قرار گرفته است. برای تحلیل ارتباط بین متغیرها از روش اسپیرمن، آزمون کای اسکوئر و t تک نمونه و آزمون فریدمن استفاده‌ شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاکی از آن است که ساکنین در شهرک اندیشه، کیفیت محیط مسکونی‌شان را نسبتاً رضایت‌بخش دانستند، اما شاخص محیطی- کالبدی از دیدگاه ساکنان در پایین‌ترین رتبه قرار گرفته است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and Measuring the Structural Relationship of Strategic Leadership Explanatory Factors in Urban Management: Case study: Isfahan metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Jamalabadi
  • Mehdi Zanganeh
  • Farshid Roohi
  • Zahra Habibzadeh
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Having access to adequate housing or shelter, which is nowadays defined within the framework of social citizenship, is one of the fundamental rights of the citizens of each country. Such a right is recognized in the constitutions of nations, including Iran, and governments are obliged to provide the conditions for families accessing to standard housing. But despite the recognition of this right, the problem of shelter and housing is one of the most acute and complex social issues in the world. Housing is one of the most important issues that human beings have always struggled with and have always tried to find a suitable and reasonable answer for it. The housing problem is an issues that today has somehow plagued all countries today to some extent, depending on their circumstances. Whereas in developed countries, housing is a dimension of social welfare and housing development programs are focused on quality improvement, housing in Iran is a primary need and its provision is in line with food and clothing provision. Many urban studies scholars also believe that the most important factor affecting a person's satisfaction with their place of residence and their type of life is housing and environmental conditions in that area, and living in abnormal housing conditions (both in terms of quality and quantity of housing), makes the residents' physical and mental health very unstable.
Inadequate housing is an effective factor in the development of depression, behavioral and personality disorders and also reduces one's resistance to problems. A person who is unable to afford adequate housing due to economic problems is in crisis. This crisis exposes the personality structure of the individual to serious harm and increases the amount of abnormalities and crime in society. The researches of urban sociologists and geographers shows that low-income people in urban areas which are living in poverty and inadequate housing are more likely to suffer psychic trauma than other citizens.
 But proper housing provides comfort and prosperity for human beings, plays a very important role in the lives of individuals in the community and can even be considered as one of the criteria for measuring social welfare in a society. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the residents' satisfaction with indicators related to residential environment in Andisheh Town of Sabzevar.
Materials and Methods
The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical and its approach is applied. In this research, documentary and field methods were used for data collection. Data collection was done in the presence of a researcher and by presenting a questionnaire to the residents of residential units which are located in Andisheh Town of Sabzevar. Statistical population included residents of Andisheh Town. Based on the 2016 census, its population was 5560. And by the Cochran's method 359 samples were selected and to be more reliable, the questionnaire has been increased to 400. The questionnaires were distributed and completed according to the geographical distribution among the citizens living in the Town. To analyze the relationship between variables, Spearman method, Chi-square test and one sample t-test and Friedman test were used. In this study, 36 items in the form of 5 indicators of social, economic, environmental, physical, housing quality were used to investigate residents' perceptions of housing desirability. Cronbach's alpha test was used for reliability of the questionnaire which its value in total index was with 36 items was 0/723. The study area is Andisheh Town, which has apartment structures and has a population of 5560 and is located in northeast of Sabzevar city.
Discussion and Results
Descriptive findings show that: the infrastructure of 63% of residential units were above 100 m2 and the rest were lower than this figure, 86% of people had apartment units and the rest had villas,  88% of the residents find their housing unit strong. Most of the apartments are between 3 and 5 floors with durable building materials. Most residential units have two rooms.
a The results of Friedman test show that among the components which are studied, the housing quality component with a mean of 4.66, in terms of residents is in a good condition. This means that the infrastructural of housing is desirable and satisfying to residents, but the physical environment with a mean of 1.26 has the least advantage over other components. And this reflects residents' dissatisfaction with the physical environment and environment of buildings. Housing quality indicator is higher than the mean which is 3. However, this indicator shows the residents' satisfaction in Andisheh Town. Therefore, the first hypothesis of the study, which the residential environment of Andisheh town of Sabzevar is not desirable, is rejected. Because, based on the Likert scale (1-5) and the Friedman test, with the exception of environmental-physical and environmental indices, others are higher than the mean.
Conclusions
The results of the research show that the residents of Andisheh Town of Sabzevar have relative satisfaction with their living environment. Housing quality indicator was in the first place, economic indicator in second place, social indicator in third place and the environmental and physical environmental indicators were in the last place of satisfaction from the residential environment. Because of the noise generated by the construction and the presence of two highways to the north and west of the town, as well as the summer storms and construction debris around the town which declined these two indicators. Also, there is no significant relationship between education, quality of housing, type of occupation and quality of living environment of residents.
In a deeper look, for each of the criteria, we can list some of these indicators, such as neighborhood cleanliness and health, the level of resident culture, and the degree of investment profitability that plays a significant role in the quality of neighborhoods. By reviving and applying traditional patterns of housing construction and integrating it with the principles of new urbanization, more favorable and sustainable housing can be built across cities and towns.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Housing
  • Housing desirability
  • inhabitants
  • Andisheh town
  • Sabzevar
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