موانع توسعه‌ی اجتماعی سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی شهر کرمان

نویسندگان

دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

موضوع این پژوهش، موانع توسعه‌ی اجتماعی سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی شهر کرمان است. علی‌رغم گذشت بیش از یک دهه از زمان ابلاغ سند بالادستی سامان‌دهی و توانمندسازی سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی بوده و مسئله‌ی آن توسعه‌نیافتگی اجتماعی مناطق ذکر شده است. جامعه‌ی موردمطالعه این پژوهش، چهار سکونتگاه غیررسمی شهرک‌ پدر، صنعتی، صیاد شیرازی و فیروزآباد بوده و روش انجام آن کیفی با رویکرد نظریه‌ی زمینه‌ای و استفاده از استراتژی مدل پارادایمی است. برای نمونه‌گیری در این پژوهش از روش هدفمند و مبتنی بر قاعده‌ی انتخاب تدریجی استفاده ‌شده است. تکنیک جمع‌آوری داده‌ها مصاحبه‌ی عمیق و در دو سطح ساختار نهادی و محلی انجام شده و تحلیل داده‌ها به روش مقایسه‌ای مداوم استروس و کوربین صورت پذیرفته است. تعداد مصاحبه‌ها در سطح محلی 43، تعداد مفاهیم شکل‌گرفته 30 و تعداد مقوله‌های ایجادشده 12 مورد و در سطح ساختار نهادی نیز تعداد مصاحبه‌های صورت‌پذیرفته 17، تعداد مفاهیم شکل‌گرفته 7 و تعداد مقوله‌های ایجادشده 3 مورد است. در این بررسی به‌منظور قابل‌فهم کردن نتایج تحقیق برای خواننده و افزایش سطح یکنواختی و همسازی نتایج، در بحث روایی به اندیشه‌ی لینکلن و گوبا و در بحث پایایی به اندیشه‌های کرک و میلر رجوع گردیده است. یافته‌های تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که با توجه به شرایط زمینه‌ای و مداخله‌های غیرتخصصی ساختار نهادی محلی، راهبردهای اتخاذشده توسط ساکنین سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی شهر کرمان، از سازمان‌یافتگی لازم جهت مطالبه‌گری مؤثر و مشارکت در فرآیند‌های منجر به توسعه‌ برخوردار نشده و توسعه‌ی مشارکتی مورد انتظار در راستای دستیابی به توسعه‌ی اجتماعی تحقق نیافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Obstacles of Social Development in Informal Settlements of Kerman City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Mokhtari
  • Alireza Vahidzade
  • Ramin Moradi
چکیده [English]

Introduction
In the past few decades, many countries in the world, including Iran, have experienced waves of urban population growth and a desire for urban life.This has caused, in many cases, the rural areas of the population, and in particular, the vacant active population and cities have no room for acceptance in defined areas. As a result, large volumes of people has settled around cities and informal urban areas and formed informal settlements. An informal settlement in the modern sense refers to residence without the permission of the landlord and usually without a formal plan and without complying with any of the laws and regulations, planning standards and generally accepted construction methods. In this investigation, researchers are seeking to identify the barriers to social development in informal settlement in Kerman city, despite more than a decade since the announcement of the relevant legal capacity.
Materials and Methods
The study population consisted of four informal settlements: Pedar, Industrial, Sayyad Shirazi and Firoozabad town and its method was qualitative with contextual theory approach and using paradigmatic model strategy. For sampling in this research, a purposeful method was used which was based on a gradual selection method. The data collection technique was conducted in depth interviews at two levels of institutional and local structure, and data analysis was performed using a steady comparison of Estrous and Corbin methods. The number of interviews at the local level was 43, the number of concepts formed was 30, the number of categories created was 12, and at the level of institutional structure, the number of interviews carried out was 17, the number of concepts formed was 7, and the number of categories created was 3. In this study, in order to understand the results of the research for the reader, and to increase the level of uniformity and to reconcile the results, in the validity discussion, the ideas of Lincoln and Guba, and in the discussion of reliability, refer to the idea of Kirk and Miller.
Discussion and Results
This study identifies any improvement in the phenomenon of social underdevelopment of informal settlements in Kerman city primarily through facilitating, guiding and supporting interventions of local institutional structures, and subsequently for adopting effective strategies depending on the favorable context and individual and social capacities of residents in Kerman. This study, unlike many common approaches in discussing how to deal with the phenomenon of informal settlements, calls for any improvement and development in the aforementioned areas depending on the effective interaction of local and institutional levels  and  the underdevelopment of the areas under study in Kerman city, despite more than a decade since the announcement of the relevant legal capacity to the weaknesses in effective interventions of local institutional structures and the lack of necessary capacity in the mentioned settlements for responsibility and interaction with local institutional structures and the use of existing local and institutional capacities for the social development of the settlements.
Conclusions
The results of the research show that although the recent approaches of the international society on the issue of organizing and empowering informal settlements have emphasized on participatory patterns, and although the notification rules related to the organization and empowerment of informal settlements in Iran have also been formulated based on participatory development patterns but simply because of the inability of institutional structures in the field of implementation, and for playing the role of facilitating, guiding and supporting, the necessary capacities in local, informal and marginal community have not been realized  for participating and responsibility of the residents in designing suitable and appropriate strategies, and the expected outcome, which is the social development of the areas under study, has not been realized.
In addition to the aforementioned topics, the facts obtained by examining the barriers to social development of informal settlements in Kerman show that in state-owned countries, many issues are rooted in dominant governmental structures, and these are institutional institutions that, in many cases, provide the necessary conditions for the creation of cultural, economic and social disorders or, because of inefficiency, they are not able to effectively intervene in the issues. They are not because of people's inability to participate and take responsibility, but because of their weaknesses, they do not have the capacity to participate, demand and collaborate in popular communities and are distrustful of popular organizations. However, the number of popular organizations is a symbol of civil society and civilization. This causes that a chain of suitable environmental conditions was not provided for the inhabitants of the study area and for effective social, cultural, economic and social movements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Informal Settlements
  • Social development
  • Grounded theory
  • Participatory Development
  • Institutional structure
  • Social participation
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