بازنمایی فضایی و تولید و بازتولید تصویر ذهنی: رهیافتی از تریالکتیک لوفور

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

نظریه‌ی لوفور در زمینه‌ی تولید فضا بسیار موردتوجه قرار گرفته است و اهمیت آن به‌ویژه در این است که آن را به‌طور سیستماتیک در مورد مقوله‌های شهر و فضا به‌صورت یک تئوری اجتماعی جامع و قابل‌فهم ادغام می‌کنند. نظریه‌ی لوفور در زمینه‌ی تولید فضا طی سال‌های اخیر رنسانس قابل‌توجهی داشته و برای سؤالات زیادی که در اوایل دهه‌ی 70 میلادی مطرح شد، پاسخ مناسبی داشته است. نقطه‌ی عزیمت لوفور سه فرآیند درهم‌تنیده به شکل دیالکتیکیِ تولید است. سه وجه تولید فضا را باید بسان وجوهی فهمید که اساساً ارزش همسانی دارند. فضا در آنِ واحد درک شده، تصور شده و زیست شده است. هسته‌ی نظریه‌ی تولید فضا سه لحظه‌ی تولید را شناسایی می‌کند: نخست، تولید مادی؛ دوم، تولید دانش؛ و سوم، تولید معنا. فضا در معنایی کنش‌گرانه و بسان شبکه‌ی درهم‌بافته‌ی روابطی فهمیده می‌شود که پیوسته تولید و بازتولید می‌شوند. نتایج مطالعه نشان می‌دهد که آنچه بازنمایی فضایی را در مطالعه‌ی حاضر مهم می‌نماید، انتزاعی و معقول بودن آن و متکی بودن برنامه‌ریزی‌ها بر آن است؛ چراکه سیاست‌مداران در تصمیم‌گیری‌های سیاسی خود و برنامه‌ریزان شهری به‌منظور ارائه‌ی برنامه‌ها و طرح‌های شهری بهتر ناگزیر از مطالعه بر روی بازنمایی فضاهای شهری هستند. از سویی تصاویر ذهنی، حاصل تعامل میان انسان و محیط بوده و شامل آگاهی‌های ذهنی فرد از محیط هستند. ازاین‌جهت مطالعه‌ی تصاویر ذهنی نقطه‌ی آغازین هرگونه تحلیل در زمینه‌ی روابط متقابل انسان و محیط دانسته می‌شود. چنین می‌توان بیان کرد که در شکل‌گیری تصویر ذهنی، ابتدا محیط شهر ادراک و سپس تصور می‌شود و وجه سوم این امر، تولید معنا و نماد است و از این نظر می‌توان گفت که تصویر ذهنی همواره تولید و بازتولید می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Representation and Production and Reproduction of the Mental Image: Lefebvre’s Trialectic Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahman Shojaeivand
  • shahrivar Rostaei
  • Akbar Asgari Zamani
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Lefebvre's theory of space production has received very much attention. This is particularly important that it systematically integrates the categories of city and space as a comprehensive and comprehensible social theory. Lefebvre's theory of space production has been remarkable in recent years and has responded well to the many questions posed in the early 1970s. Lefebvre's point of departure is three dialectically intertwined processes of production. The three aspects of space production should be understood as those that are essentially of equal value. Space is perceived, imagined and lived at once. The core of the theory of space production identifies three moments of production: first, material production; second, knowledge production; and, third, the production of meaning. Space is understood in an active sense and as a web of interconnected relationships that are constantly being produced and reproduced.
Materials and Methods
Lefebvre's theory of space production has received very much attention. This is particularly important that it systematically integrates the categories of city and space as a comprehensive and comprehensible social theory. Lefebvre's theory of space production has been remarkable in recent years and has responded well to the many questions posed in the early 1970s. Lefebvre's point of departure is three dialectically intertwined processes of production. The three aspects of space production should be understood as those that are essentially of equal value. Space is perceived, imagined and lived at once. The core of the theory of space production identifies three moments of production: first, material production; second, knowledge production; and, third, the production of meaning. Space is understood in an active sense and as a web of interconnected relationships that are constantly being produced and reproduced.
Discussion and Results
Lefebvre developed a dialectic based on one of the teachings of Karl Marx, the Earth, by adding a more modern element of its equivalent, space, changing from the form of the dialectic (binary) to trialectic (ternary) form. Thus, the element of time and space-place, both of which included the categories raised in the twenty-first century, entered the dialectical process. Lefebvre developed the trialectic by extending the concept of space and dialectical materialism. He criticized Hegelian and Marxian dialectics, their attempts to resolve their binary oppositions was not succeeded, and linked dialectics to social material reality through the category of space. Lefebvre complemented the space in traditional dialectics of history and time to follow the material context of space production. With triangulation, Lefebvre showed the "production of space" on the basis of the triple dialectics of space, thereby placing space at the center of contemporary socio-political theories.
In Lefebvre's theory, space is examined through three aspects as the perceived, conceived, and lived. This model reflects the unity among physical, mental and social space. The first space of this triple space as a physical form and real space is the space which has been created and used. The second part, as a mental structure, is the space which has been conceived. The space of knowledge, recognition, logic of maps and mathematics is as the space of geographers and urban planners and space explorers. The third part of observing the space is like as reality and imagination, production, modification, and change over time and thought of using from it, is the space that is represented by symbol and meaning. A very important feature of Lefebvre's approach is to transcend philosophy and theory, and to arrive at action. Lefebvre uses all his efforts to protect content from the form, from existence against thought and from material social reality against the pure idea. He shows by expanding the content that our knowledge is limited by the restriction of content and social form. Lefebvre argues that the transformation of social relations means the transformation of spatial social relations, in other words, the creation of a new free space. In addition to being a concrete materiality, the social space also has a concept of thought and emotion, and includes experience. When we look at the origin and the social perspective, there are no materiality or material actions alone and without thought that directs them and represent them, without the lived and experienced component. In fact, space does not exist by itself, but is understood in a functionalist sense and continuously produced and reproduced.
Conclusions
The results of the study show that what is important for spatial representation in the present study is its abstractness and reasonableness and its reliance on planning, because politicians in their political decisions and urban planners inevitably need to study the representation of urban spaces in order to present urban plans and projects. Mental images, on the other hand, are the result of interactions between humans and the environment and include the one's mental awareness of the environment. Therefore, the study of mental images is the starting point for any analysis in the field of human-environment interaction. It can be stated that in the formation of the mental image, first, the environment of the city is perceived and then conceived, and the third aspect of this is the production of meaning and symbol, and in this regard it can be said that the mental image is always produced and reproduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lefebvres Trialectic
  • Spatial Representation
  • Mental image
  • Reproduction
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