شناسایی و تحلیل پیشران‌های کلیدی مؤثر بر توسعه‌ی روستاهای در معرض خشک‌سالی (مطالعه‌ی موردی: روستاهای حوضه‌ی آبریز دریاچه‌ی ارومیه)

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ‌واحد تبریز

2 دانشگاه پیام نور تهران

چکیده

سازگاری با خشک‌سالی بنا به ماهیت پیچیده‌­ی این پدیده، وابسته به عوامل متعدد اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست­محیطی، زیرساختی و مدیریتی است و فرآیند توسعه‌ی روستاهای واقع در شرایط خشک‌سالی نیز وابسته به عوامل متعددی است که ناشی از شرایط خشک‌سالی است. خشک شدن دریاچه‌ی ارومیه هم ضرورت و اهمیت سازگاری سکونتگاه­های روستایی را با شرایط فعلی این دریاچه‌ اجتناب­ناپذیر کرده است، لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف اصلی شناسایی مؤلفه­های کلیدی توسعه‌ی روستایی در سطح روستاهای حوضه‌ی آبریز دریاچه‌ی ارومیه صورت گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی-اکتشافی و مبتنی بر اصول آینده­‌پژوهشی است. نتایج یافته­‌های پژوهش نشان داد که از مجموع 67 متغیر مؤثر بر مدیریت روستایی مبتنی بر خشک‌سالی دریاچه‌ی ارومیه، 9 عامل به‌عنوان پیشران کلیدی محسوب می­‌شوند که عبارت­‌اند از؛ کشت محصولات مقاوم به خشک‌سالی، آموزش و مهارت‌افزایی روستاییان، کنترل فرسایش خاک، توجه به تنوع معیشتی روستاییان، اجرای طرح­‌های آبخیزداری، استفاده از سیستم آبیاری بارانی و قطره­‌ایی، جلب مشارکت روستاییان در اجرای طرح‌­های احیای دریاچه‌ی ارومیه، بیمه­‌ی محصولات کشاورزی و دامی در برابر حوادث و مقابله با ریزگردها. در نهایت با توجه یافته­‌های پژوهش پیشنهاد می­‌شود با اتخاذ رویکرد جامع اجتماعی، فنی و کشاورزی اقدام به تسهیل سازگاری روستاییان و سکونتگاه­‌های آن‌ها با شرایط خشکی دریاچه‌ی ارومیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and Analysis of Key Factors Affecting on the Development of Drought-Affected villages Case study: Rural Settlement in the Urmia Lake Watershed

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ebrahim Ramazani 1
  • Kyumars Khodapanah 2
1
2
چکیده [English]

Compliance with the drought, due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, depends on a variety of social, economic, environmental, infrastructure and management factors, and the development process of villages located in drought conditions also depends on several factors that are caused by drought conditions. The drying of Lake Urmia has also made the necessity and importance of adapting rural settlements to the present conditions of this lake inevitable. The present research is carried out with the main purpose of forecasting rural-based rural drought management in the villages of Lake Urmia watershed. The research is applied-exploratory and based on the principles of future research. The results of the research showed that of the total of 67 variables affecting rural drought management based on Urmia Lake, 9 factors are considered to be the key driver: cultivating drought-resistant products, education and skills of villagers, Soil erosion control, attention to livelihoods diversity of villagers, implementation of drainage plans, use of sprinkler irrigation system and drainage, attracting villagers participation in implementation of Urmia lake restoration projects, insurance of agricultural products and livestock against accidents and coping with micro-organisms . Finally, with consideration of research findings, it is suggested that by adopting comprehensive social, technical and agricultural approaches, facilitating the adaptation of villages with drought conditions in Urmia Lake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Adaptability
  • Rural development
  • Key Factors
  • Lake Urmia
Alam, K. (2015). Farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity in drought-prone environments: A case study of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management, 148, 196-206. Alam, K. (2015). Farmers’ adaptation to water scarcity in drought-prone environments: A case study of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management, 148, 196-206. Ali, S. R, & Menke, K. A. (2014). Rural Latino youth career development: An application of social cognitive career theory. The Career Development Quarterly, 62(2), 175-186. Austin, E. K, Handley, T, Kiem, A. S, Rich, J. L, Lewin, T. J, Askland, H. H,... Kelly, B. J. (2018). Drought‐related stress among farmers: findings from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study. Medical Journal of Australia, 209(4), 159-165. Bock, B. B. (2016). Rural marginalisation and the role of social innovation; a turn towards nexogenous development and rural reconnection. Sociologia ruralis, 56(4), 552-573. Brugger, J, & Crimmins, M. (2013). The art of adaptation: Living with climate change in the rural American Southwest. Global Environmental Change, 23(6), 1830-1840. Burchfield, E, Williams, N. E, & Carrico, A. R. (2018). Rescaling drought mitigation in rural Sri Lanka. Regional Environmental Change, 18(8), 2495-2503. Campos, M, Velázquez, A, & McCall, M. (2014). Adaptation strategies to climatic variability: A case study of small-scale farmers in rural Mexico. Land Use Policy, 38, 533-540. Cazorla, A, De Los Ríos, I, & Salvo, M. (2013). Working With People (WWP) in rural development projects: A proposal from social learning. Cuadernos de desarrollo rural, 10(SPE70), 131-157. Chen, H, Wang, J, & Huang, J. (2014). Policy support, social capital, and farmers’ adaptation to drought in China. Global Environmental Change, 24, 193-202. Chen, H, Wang, J, & Huang, J. (2014). Policy support, social capital, and farmers’ adaptation to drought in China. Global Environmental Change, 24, 193-202. Fisher, M, Abate, T, Lunduka, R. W, Asnake, W, Alemayehu, Y, & Madulu, R. B. (2015). Drought tolerant maize for farmer adaptation to drought in sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of adoption in eastern and southern Africa. Climatic Change, 133(2), 283-299. German, L, & Schoneveld, G. (2012). A review of social sustainability considerations among EU-approved voluntary schemes for biofuels, with implications for rural livelihoods. Energy Policy, 51, 765-778. Gray, C, & Mueller, V. (2012). Drought and population mobility in rural Ethiopia. World Development, 40(1), 134-145. Hansen, J, Hellin, J, Rosenstock, T, Fisher, E, Cairns, J, Stirling, Campbell, B. (2019). Climate risk management and rural poverty reduction. Agricultural Systems, 172, 28-46. Hayati, 32. D, Karami, E, & Slee, B. (2006). Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the measurement of rural poverty: the case of Iran. Social Indicators Research, 75(3), 361-394. Kiem, A. S, & Austin, E. K. (2013). Drought and the future of rural communities: opportunities and challenges for climate change adaptation in regional Victoria, Australia. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1307-1316. Lohmann, S, & Lechtenfeld, T. (2015). The effect of drought on health outcomes and health expenditures in rural Vietnam. World Development, 72, 432-448. McLeman, R, Mayo, D, Strebeck, E, & Smit, B. (2008). Drought adaptation in rural eastern Oklahoma in the 1930s: lessons for climate change adaptation research. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 13(4), 379-400. Mikulcak, F, Haider, J. L, Abson, D. J, Newig, J, & Fischer, J. (2015). Applying a capitals approach to understand rural development traps: A case study from post-socialist Romania. Land Use Policy, 43, 248-258. Naldi, L, Nilsson, P, Westlund, H, & Wixe, S. (2015). What is smart rural development? Journal of rural studies, 40, 90-101. Ortiz-Miranda, D, Moreno-Pérez, O. M, & Moragues-Faus, A. M. (2010). Innovative strategies of agricultural cooperatives in the framework of the new rural development paradigms: the case of the Region of Valencia (Spain). Environment and Planning A, 42(3), 661-677. Palmer, P. I, & Smith, M. J. (2014). Model human adaptation to climate change. Nature, 512(7515), 365. Pedro-Monzonís, M, Solera, A, Ferrer, J, Estrela, T, & Paredes-Arquiola, J. (2015). A review of water scarcity and drought indexes in water resources planning and management. Journal of Hydrology, 527, 482-493. Silva, J. A, & Mosimane, A. W. (2013). Conservation-based rural development in Namibia: a mixed-methods assessment of economic benefits. The Journal of Environment & Development, 22(1), 25-50. Singh, R, Musa, J, Singh, S, & Ebere, U. V. (2014). Knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria among the rural communities in Aliero, Northern Nigeria. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 3(1), 39. Wu, X, Lu, Y, Zhou, S, Chen, L, & Xu, B. (2016). Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environment international, 86, 14-23.