سکونتگاه‌های شهری و امنیت زنان در فضای عمومی؛ مطالعه ی موردی شهر سبزوار

نویسندگان

دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

بی­تردید پیش­نیاز هر گونه توسعه در جوامع مختلف و در ابعاد گوناگون، احساس امنیت افراد است و در این راستا امنیت و احساس امنیتِ اقشار آسیب­پذیری چون زنان، اهمیت بیشتری می­یابد. بر این اساس، هدف مقاله حاضر، بررسی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر احساس امنیتِ زنانِ 18 تا 65 سالِ مناطق مختلفِ بالا و پایین شهر سبزوار، در فضاهای عمومی و سطح محله می­باشد. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی و مبتنی بر روش­ پیمایشی است. یافته­های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که از میان عواملی چون ویژگی­های فردی، پایگاه اجتماعی-اقتصادی، تعلق مکانی و البته با تاکید بر مناطق بالا و پایین شهر؛ متغیرهای سن، محل تولد، وضعیت تأهل و سطح تحصیلات تأثیر معنی­داری بر احساس امنیت زنان در فضاهای عمومی دارند. بدین معنی که زنانِ جوان تر، متولدین در شهرها، زنان متأهل و با تحصیلات بالاتر، در فضاهای عمومی، احساس امنیت بیشتری دارند. عوامل تأثیرگذار بر احساس امنیت زنان در سطح محله، سطح تحصیلات، احساس تعلق مکانی و منطقه ی سکونت زنان هستند. به عبارت دیگر زنان با تحصیلات کمتر، زنانی که احساس تعلق مکانی بیشتری دارند، و زنانی که در محلات قدیمی تر زندگی می کنند، احساس امنیت بیشتری در محله دارند. در نهایت می­توان گفت مناطق شهری، یکی از عوامل مؤثر بر احساس امنیت زنان در سطح محله است و قدمت مناطق شهری مهم ترین ویژگی تأثیرگذار آنها است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Urban Settlements and Women's Security in Public Space Case Study: Sabzevar city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shafieh Ghodrati
  • Toktam Roshandel
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Urban security is one of the issues that have particular sensitivities, and urban planners believe that cities must be built for all age groups, sex and classes in order to be safe, and that age and gender differences are taken into account in making them. (Tabrizia & Madanipour, 2006: 935).What makes this necessary for women is that the lack of women's sense of security is in reality a threat to the value of the role of mother, wife and sometimes the care of a family, and the safety of any harm that harms women and women from physically and mentally threatened, it will be subsequently transferred to subsequent generations. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine the social safety of women aged 18-65 in Sabzevar. These goals include: Understanding the level of women's security in different residential areas in Sabzevar (upper and lower regions); Assessing the relationship between urban areas of the women's place of residence and their security; Identifying the impact of the class of social status of women in establishing their sense of social security; Assessing the relationship between the sense of belonging to the place and the sense of security of women in the city of Sabzevar.
Materials and Methods
The research is quantitative and data collection is done in a field study using a questionnaire tool. The validity of the questionnaire is formal. To achieve acceptable reliability, the test was performed with a sample of 40. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the social security sensitivity of women was 0.71, for the spatial sense of belonging equal to 0.68 and the overall alpha coefficient was 0.79. After collecting the data, the information was coded and analyzed using SPSS statistical software.The present research is related to Sabzevar city. In order to make it clear that the role of places and neighborhoods in the sense of security is clearly recognizable, the two old neighborhoods (Azimian) and the new (Sonalux) on top of the city and the two old neighborhoods (Imam ZadehShoeib) and the new (ChelMetreDovom) in the down town was selected.The statistical population of this study included all women and girls aged 18-65 years old in Sabzevar. 200 questionnaires have been filled in. Each of the quaternary neighborhoods of Sabzevar has received 50 questionnaires. Due to the lack of access to the sampling framework, a multi-stage cluster sampling method has been selected. Based on the review of previous theories and researches, a series of concepts and variables were included in the study, which included social security, socioeconomic status and spatial affinity.
Discussion and Results
Findings of the research indicate that among factors such as individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, place belonging and, of course, emphasizing the upper and lower regions of the city; variables such as age, place of birth, marital status and education level have a meaningful effect on the sense of the security of women in public spaces. This means that younger women, those born in cities, married women, and more educated, feel more secure in public spaces.The factors affecting women's sense of security at the neighborhood level are the level of education, the sense of belonging to the place and the area of residence of women. In other words, women with less education, women who feel more tolerant, and women living in older neighborhoods feel more secure in the neighborhood. Finally, it can be said that urban areas are one of the factors affecting the sense of security of women in the neighborhood, and the age of urban areas is their most important feature.
Conclusions
This study showed that the level of women's security in the public space in Sabzevar is relatively lower than average and the feeling of security in its neighborhood and its residential area is higher than the average.Comparison of the four areas of study shows that although the upper and lower areas of the city can affect the feeling of security in individuals, however, the old and new neighborhoods and urban areas can also affect this feeling, double effects As it is evident in this research, residents of the old neighborhoods in the upper and lower parts of the city have a higher sense of security due to their originality and their identity toward new and emerging neighborhoods in the upper and lower parts of the city.One of the findings of this study is the reverse impact of education on the sense of security in the neighborhood and its direct impact on the sense of security in the public space. This relationship can be explained in terms of the contrast between tradition and modernity. Women who have more education are among the forerunners in the experience of modernization, while the concept of neighborhoods in Iran is indicative of the Iranian traditions and values.In this way, it seems that women who have a closer relationship with their neighbors and locals, and consequently feel more secure in their neighborhood, generally have less education and vice versa. On the other hand, educated women have a greater control over their own circumstances in order to learn more and gain social skills, and feel more secure in the public space.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Women's Security
  • a feeling of security in the public space
  • a feeling of security in the neighborhood
  • Urban areas
  • Sabzevar city
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