عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Rural areas as a "geographic objectivity" or "spatial-local reality" are inevitably subject to various transformation. These transformation in rural areas, along with internal changes, are often of an exogenous origin and appear through external events at the local, regional and national levels. As a result of this process, rural areas are subject to "innovations" that are often originally formed outside rural areas. One of the most important factors that influenced the political dimension (planning) on the structure and functioning of rural areas in terms of environmental, socio-economic and physical-spatial dimensions (spatial system) is the construction projects, especially the construction of dams. The dam as one of the development projects for rural areas can lead to job creation, the development of agricultural activities, road development and communication paths, diversification into rural economies, etc. However, it has imposed many problems in the field of population establishment, the type and quality of livelihoods and the use of natural resources, such as water and soil on rural areas. Recognizing and exploring this role is very useful in explaining the rural unsustainable development process and the necessity of its transformation with regard to the prevailing situation of rural. The main objective of this study is to investigate and analyze the relationship between the constructions of dams with unstable conditions in the affected rural and provide appropriate solutions for managing resources in the Sufi Chai basin.
Materials and Methods
The type of research according to the purpose is applied research, and based on descriptive-analytical method. For doing the analysis of the villages affected by the dam, according to different characteristics (household dimension and distance from dam), from a total of 59 villages in the basin, 44 villages were selected as samples. The studied samples were 386 households using the Cochran formula, and finally to increase to degree of confidence, it is upgraded to 433 households. Then, based on the number of households in each village, the number of samples for each village was determined. The survey was conducted at the rural household level. The validity and reliability of the instrument were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient at the level of 0/70.
Discussion and Results
According to one sample t-test, the effects of the dam in the form of economic, socio-cultural and environmental-physical variables were significant at unstable level and based on the results of structural equation test, the privilege of each dimension of village instability was different. Also, according to the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, the difference of impacts among the three areas which are upstream, middle and downstream, it is especially demonstrated that to the detriment of downstream areas.
Based on the results of the research, it can be stated that the Alevian dam has affected various rural dimensions, but this impact has led to greater instability of the villages, because after the construction of the dam, agricultural, tourism, and industrial development, increasing facilities, employment and stable incomes and so on... has been a cross-sectional trend and over the years, as the population has increased and the lifestyle and values have changed, in other words, the downward trend or the developmental instability of the villages has dominated the region. In fact, management structures lacked the systematic and comprehensive planning and to operate in such a way that the villages would be sustainable in light of the capacity created by the dam. The overall result is that the effects of the dam were significantly lower than expected in the socio-cultural, environmental and physical dimensions. Comparing the three rural areas named upstream, middle and downstream in terms of dam impact has showed the downstream region is more unstable than between the upstream and middle. Among the reasons for this, these villages were not placed on the Sufi Chai tourist route, the increase in unemployment has been due to the decline in agriculture and related jobs, the decline in people's willingness to live in rural areas, and as a result of the seasonal and permanent migration from the region. Middle and upstream villages have also suffered from the negative effects of reducing the agricultural land levels in some villages due to underwater the lands and the loss of agricultural jobs, forced migrations and increased social anomalies caused by tourists traveling. In general, there were significant differences in the losses of downstream among the three upstream, middle and downstream areas. Finally, in order to moderate the negative effects of the dam, a comprehensive integrated management plan for the Sufi Chai basin has been proposed.